How To Remove Chloramines
In water purification Granulated Activated Carbon GAC has been used as the standard for removal of Chlorine and Chloramines. In 2012 two University studies were published concerning problems with using GAC in Chloraminated water systems. It has been proven that GAC breaks down in chloraminated water within it first year of use, this creates micro chards of used carbon being released into the "filtered" water supply which is unsafe for homeowners. The proper filtration media for chloraminated water supplies is Catalytic Activated Carbon and environmentally, we suggest Coconut Shell Catalytic Activated Carbon due to its sustainability. This carbon is four times as effective and has four times the capacity of GAC. It takes four times as much GAC to do the job as one unit of CSCAC.
If you have Chloramines in your water do not settle for GAC, CSCAC is 4 times the price of GAC for good reason, protect your family and yourself ask for Catalytic Carbon by name, get it in writing.
Removing chloramines from water
Chloramines should be removed from water for dialysis, aquariums, hydroponic applications and homebrewing beer. Chloramines can interfere with dialysis, can hurt aquatic animals, and can give homebrewed beer a medicinal taste by forming chlorophenols. In hydroponic applications it will stunt the growth and fruit production of plants.
When a chemical or biological process that changes the chemistry of chloramines is used, it falls under reductive dechlorination. Other techniques use physical—not chemical—methods for removing chloramines.
Chloramine must be removed from the water prior to use in kidney dialysis machines, as it would come in contact with the bloodstream across a permeable membrane. However, since chloramine is neutralized by the digestive process, kidney dialysis patients can still safely drink chloramine-treated water.
The use of UV for chlorine or chloramine removal is an established technology that has been widely accepted in pharmaceutical, beverage, and dialysis applications.Ultraviolet light is also used at aquatic facilities.
Chloramine can be removed from tap water by treatment with superchlorination (10 ppm or more of free chlorine, such as from a dose of sodium hypochlorite bleach or pool sanitizer) while maintaining a pH of about 7 (such as from a dose of hydrochloric acid). Hypochlorous acid from the free chlorine strips the ammonia from the chloramine, and the ammonia outgasses from the surface of the bulk water. This process takes about 24 hours for normal tap water concentrations of a few ppm of chloramine. Residual free chlorine can then be removed by exposure to bright sunlight for about 4 hours.
Ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate completely neutralizes both chlorine and chloramines but degrades in a day or two which only make it usable for short-term applications; SFPUC determined that 1000 mg of Vitamin C (tablets purchased in a grocery store, crushed and mixed in with the bath water) remove chloramine completely in a medium size bathtub without significantly depressing pH.
Activated carbon have been used for chloramine removal long before catalytic carbon became available; Standard activated carbon requires a very long contact time, which means a large volume of carbon is needed. For thorough removal, up to four times the contact time of catalytic carbon may be required.
Most dialysis units now depend on granular activated carbon (GAC) filters, two of which should be placed in series so that chloramine breakthrough can be detected after the first one, before the second one fails.Additionally, sodium metabisulfite injection may be used during circumstances.
Home brewers use reducing agents such as sodium metabisulfite or potassium metabisulfite (both proprietary sold as campden tablets) to remove chloramine from brewing fermented beverages. However, residual sodium can cause off flavors in beer so potassium metabisulfite is preferred.
Sodium thiosulfate is used to dechlorinate tap water for aquariums or treat effluent from waste water treatments prior to release into rivers. The reduction reaction is analogous to the iodine reduction reaction. Treatment of tap water requires between 0.1 grams and 0.3 grams of pentahydrated (crystalline) sodium thiosulfate per 10 liters of water. Many animals are sensitive to chloramine and it must be removed from water given to many animals in zoos.
Chloramine, like chlorine, can be removed by boiling and aging. However time required to remove the chloramine is much longer than that of chlorine. The time required to remove half of the chloramine (half life) from water by boiling is 26.6 hours, while the half life of free chlorine in boiling water is only 1.8 hours.